植物学顶尖杂志 Plant Cell, New Phytol , Mol Plant, Plant Physiol, Plant Biotechnol J, Plant J, nature Plants及综合期刊Nucleic Acids Res. ， PNAS，NB，NC及NG有关植物学的研究文章导读，每日定时更新，了解行业最前沿进展。
microRNAs (miRNAs) recently have been established as key regulators of transcriptome reprogramming that defines cell function and identity. Nevertheless, the molecular functions of the greatest number of miRNA genes remain to be determined. Here, we report cooperative regulatory functions of miR858 and its MYB83 transcription factor target gene in transcriptome reprogramming during Heterodera cyst nematode parasitism of Arabidopsis. Gene expression analyses and promoter-GUS fusion assays documented a role of miR858 in post-transcriptional regulation of MYB83 in the Heterodera schachtii-induced feeding sites, the syncytia. Constitutive overexpression of miR858 interfered with H. schachtii parasitism of Arabidopsis, leading to reduced susceptibility, while reduced miR858 abundance enhanced plant susceptibility. Similarly, MYB83 expression increases were conducive to nematode infection because overexpression of a non-cleavable coding sequence of MYB83 significantly increased plant susceptibility, whereas a myb83 mutation rendered the plants less susceptible. In addition, RNA-seq analysis revealed that genes involved in hormone signaling pathways, defense response and glucosinolate biosynthesis, cell wall modification, sugar transport, and transcriptional control are the key etiological factors by which MYB83-facilitates nematode parasitism of Arabidopsis. Furthermore, we discovered that miR858-mediated silencing of MYB83 is tightly regulated through a feedback loop that might contribute to fine-tuning the expression of more than a thousand of MYB83-regulated genes in the H. schachtii-induced syncytium. Together, our results suggest a role of the miR858-MYB83 regulatory system in finely balancing gene expression patterns during H. schachtii parasitism of Arabidopsis to ensure optimal cellular function.
For many commercial potato cultivars, tuber yield is optimal at average day time temperatures in the range of 14-22⁰C. Further rises in ambient temperature can reduce or completely inhibit potato tuber production, with damaging consequences for both producer and consumer. The aim of this study was to use a genetic screen based on a model tuberisation assay to identify Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated with enhanced tuber yield. A candidate gene encoding HSc70 was identified within one of the three QTL intervals associated with elevated yield in a Phureja-Tuberosum hybrid diploid potato population (06H1). A particular HSc70 allelic variant was linked to elevated yield in the 06H1 progeny. Expression of this allelic variant was much higher than other alleles, particularly on exposure to moderately elevated temperature. Transient expression of this allele in Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in significantly enhanced tolerance to elevated temperature. An TA repeat element was present in the promoter of this allele, but not in other HSc70 alleles identified in the population. Expression of the HSc70 allelic variant under its native promoter in the potato cultivar Desiree resulted in enhanced HSc70 expression at elevated temperature. This was reflected in greater tolerance to heat stress as determined by improved yield under moderately elevated temperature in a model nodal cutting tuberisation system and in plants grown from stem cuttings. Our results identify HSc70 expression level as a significant factor influencing yield stability under moderately elevated temperature and identify specific allelic variants of HSc70 for the induction of thermotolerance via conventional introgression or molecular breeding approaches.
Molecular genetic analyses revealed that the WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) gene superfamily regulates several programs in plant development. Many different mechanisms are reported to underlie these alterations. The WOX family member STENOFOLIA (STF) is involved in leaf expansion in the eudicot Medicago truncutula. Here, we report that when this gene was ectopically expressed in a locally adapted hard red winter wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum), the transgenic plants showed not only widened leaves but also accelerated flowering and increased chlorophyll content. These desirable traits were stably inherited in the progeny plants. STF binds to wheat genes that have the (GA)n/(CT)n DNA cis element, regardless of sequences flanking the DNA repeats, suggesting a mechanism for its pleiotropic effects. However, the amino acids between position 91 and 262 in the STF protein that were found to bind with the (GA)n motif have no conserved domain with any other GAGA-binding proteins in animals or plants. We also found that STF interacted with a variety of proteins in wheat in yeast 2 hybrid assays. We conclude that the eudicot STF gene binds to (GA)n/(CT)n DNA elements and can be used to regulate leaf width, flowering time and chlorophyll content in monocot wheat.
Ubiquitination modulates nearly all aspects of plant life. Here, we reconstituted the Arabidopsis thalianaubiquitination cascade in Escherichia coli using a synthetic biology approach. In this system, plant proteins are expressed and then immediately participate in ubiquitination reactions within E. coli cells. Additionally, the purification of the inpidual ubiquitination components prior to setting up the ubiquitination reactions is skipped. To establish the reconstituted system, we co-expressed Arabidopsis ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitination substrates with E1, E2 and E3 enzymes in E. coli using the Duet expression vectors. The functionality of the system was evaluated by examining the auto-ubiquitination of a RING (Really Interesting New Gene)-type E3 ligase AIP2 and the ubiquitination of its substrate ABI3. Our results demonstrated the fidelity and specificity of this system. In addition, we applied this system to assess a subset of Arabidopsis E2s in Ub chain formation using E2 conjugation assays. Affinity-tagged Ub allowed efficient purification of Ub conjugates in milligram quantity. Consistent with previous reports, distinct roles of various E2s in Ub chain assembly were also observed in this bacterial system. Therefore, this reconstituted system has multiple advantages, and it can be used to screen for targets of E3 ligases or to study plant ubiquitination in detail.
Multiple pathways exist to repair DNA damage induced by methylating and cross-linking agents in Arabidopsis thaliana. The SWI2/SNF2 translocase RAD5A, the functional homolog of budding yeast Rad5 that is required for the error-free branch of post replicative repair, plays a surprisingly prominent role in the repair of both kinds of lesions in Arabidopsis. Here we show that both the ATPase domain and the ubiquitination function of the RING domain of the Arabidopsis protein are essential for the cellular response to different forms of DNA damage. To define the exact role of RAD5A within the complex network of DNA repair pathways, we crossed the rad5a mutant line with mutants of different known repair factors of Arabidopsis. We had previously shown that RAD5A acts independently of two main pathways of replication-associated DNA repair defined by the helicase RECQ4A and the endonuclease MUS81. The enhanced sensitivity of all double mutants tested in this study indicates that the repair of damaged DNA by RAD5A also occurs independent of nucleotide excision repair (AtRAD1), single-strand break repair (AtPARP1), as well as micro-homology mediated double-strand break repair (AtTEB). Moreover, RAD5A can partially complement for a deficient AtATM-mediated DNA damage response in plants, as the double mutant shows phenotypic growth defects.
Isolated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone layers have been widely used as a model system for studying gene expression and hormonal regulation in germinating cereal grains. A serious technological limitation of this approach has been the inability to confidently extrapolate conclusions obtained from isolated tissues back to the whole grain, where the co-location of several living and non-living tissues results in complex tissue-tissue interactions and regulatory pathways coordinated across the multiple tissues. Here, we have developed methods for isolating fragments of aleurone, starchy endosperm, embryo, scutellum, pericarp-testa, husk and crushed cell layers from germinated grain. An important step in the procedure involves the rapid fixation of the intact grain to freeze the transcriptional activity of inpidual tissues while dissection is effected for subsequent transcriptomic analyses. The developmental profiles of 19,611 gene transcripts were precisely defined in the purified tissues and in whole grain during the first 24 hours of germination by RNA-seq. Spatial and temporal patterns of transcription were validated against well-defined data on enzyme activities both in whole grain and in isolated tissues. Transcript profiles of genes involved in mitochondrial assembly and function were used to validate the very early stages of germination, while the profiles of genes involved in starch and cell wall mobilization matched existing data on activities of corresponding enzymes. The data will be broadly applicable for the interrogation of co-expression and differential expression patterns and for the identification of transcription factors that are important in the early stages of grain and seed germination.
Elucidating the spatio-temporal organization of the genome inside the nucleus is imperative to understand the regulation of genes and non-coding sequences during development and environmental changes. Emerging techniques of chromatin imaging promise to bridge the long-standing gap between sequencing studies which reveal genomic information and imaging studies that provide spatial and temporal information of defined genomic regions. Here, we demonstrate such an imaging technique based on two orthologues of the bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 system. By fusing eGFP/mRuby2 to the catalytically inactive version of Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus Cas9, we show robust visualization of telomere repeats in live leaf cells ofNicotiana benthamiana. By tracking the dynamics of telomeres visualized by CRISPR-dCas9, we reveal dynamic telomere movements of up to 2 μm within 30 minutes during interphase. Furthermore, we show that CRISPR-dCas9 can be combined with fluorescence-labelled proteins to visualize DNA-protein interactionsin vivo. By simultaneously using two dCas9 orthologues, we pave the way for imaging of multiple genomic loci in live plants cells. CRISPR-imaging bears the potential to significantly improve our understanding of the dynamics of chromosomes in live plant cells.
- Nat. Commun.|朱健康团队发现与气候关联的表观等位基因参与影响自然界植物叶片衰老的分子机制